Polycystic Kidney Disease
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a genetic disorder that causes many cysts to form in the kidneys.
Nationally about 7.4 per cent of end-stage kidney disease patients have PKD as their primary diagnosis. In Manitoba that number is 4.9 per cent. (source) About 1 in 500 Canadians will be affected by PKD. Half of those diagnosed experience kidney failure by the time they’re 54. (source)
How is PKD diagnosed?
- History of PKD in the family
- Ultrasound or other imaging
- Genetic testing
Types of PKD
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD)
- A more common genetic kidney disorder
- Usually a family history of the disease and parents with ADPKD have a 50 percent chance of passing the disease on to each of their children
- Many patients living with ADPKD can live with the disease symptom-free for many years before requiring additional medical care
Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD)
- A more rare genetic disorder
- Affects boys and girls equally
- Most children living with ARPKD will require a transplant early on, between the ages of 4 and 10 years old
- In some cases, symptoms of ARPKD do not appear until later on in childhood or even into adolescent years
How are the kidneys affected?
- The kidneys become large because of the cysts
- These grape like cysts can start taking over the function of the kidneys
- As the cysts grow, they slowly damage the kidneys
- Can lead to kidney failure
What are some signs and symptoms that patients with PKD can experience?
- Pain in the back and lower sides
- Urinary tract infections
- Blood in the urine
- Kidney stones
- High blood pressure
How is PKD managed?
- Low salt diet
- Healthy lifestyle
- Antibiotics to treat infection
- If your kidney disease declines to end stage kidney disease you will need: Dialysis treatment, Kidney transplant, No treatment/End of life care